Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Caricaceae
Soil and climate
It is a tropical fruit and grows well in regions where summer temperature ranges from 35°C - 38°C. Tolerates frost and comes up to an elevation of 1200 m above mean sea level. Well drained soils of uniform texture are highly preferable to avoid the collar rot disease.
500 g of seeds is required for planting one ha. June-September is the best season for planting. Avoid planting in rainy season.
Treat the seeds with Captan @ 2 g/kg of seeds. Dibble four seeds in polythene bags in depth not exceeding one cm. Keep the polythene bags in partial shade. Watering can be done with the help of rose can. Seedlings will be ready in about 60 days.
Plant the seedlings at 1.8 m either ways in pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm size.
Irrigate copiously after planting. Irrigate the field once in a week.
Application of fertilizers
Apply FYM 10 Kg/plant as basal and 50 g in each of N, P and K per plant at bi-monthly intervals from the third month of planting after removing unwanted sex forms. Apply 20 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium at planting again six months after planting.
Apply 10 litres of water per day + 13.5 g urea and 10.5 g muriate of potash/ week through drip irrigation and soil application of super phosphate 300g per plant at bimonthly intervals starting from 3-4 months after planting immediately after thinning of plants is recommended.
Male trees should be removed after the emergence of inflorescence maintaining one male tree for every 20 female trees for proper fruitset. In each pit only one vigorously growing female/hermaphrodite tree should be retained and other plants should be removed. In gynodioecious type like (Co 3 & Co 7) keep one hermophrodite type/pit and remove female trees.
Spray ZnSO4 0.5% + H2BO3 0.1% during 4th and 8th month to increase growth and yield characters.
To control the nematode infestation in nursery, apply Carbofuran 3 G @ 1 g/polythene bag after germination.
Papaya ring spot virus
Grow maize as catch crop for vectors. Spray insecticides to control the vectors. Micronutrient spray at fortnight intervals.
Root rot and wilt
In water stagnated areas root-rot may appear easily. It is advisable to drench the soil with 0.1 % Methoxyethyl mercuric chloride or 1 % Bordeaux mixture or Metalaxyl 0.2%, 2 or 4 times at fortnightly intervals. Good drainage is important to avoid the spread of disease.
Crop duration: 18 months.
Fruits should be picked at colour break stage.
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